Comparison of lipid profiles and 10 year cardiovascular disease risk estimates between indigenous northern diabetic and non-diabetic persons in Adamawa region, Cameroon

O.M. Pancha, F.B. Damdam, M.T. Tamanji

Abstract


Dyslipidemias are possible debilitating outcomes of diabetes and important predictors of cardiovascular disease risk in diabetic patients. We carried out a cross-sectional, case control study from April to July 2014 at the Ngaoundere Regional Hospital involving 90 patients: 45 diabetics (10 type 1 and 35 type 2) and 45 non-diabetics with the aim of characterizing and comparing the lipid profile between type 1 and type 2 diabetics of northern Cameroon. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were obtained, and a fasting blood sample collected per patient on which blood sugar level and lipid profile were determined. Data analysis was performed using R Version 2.13.0 and the French version of Epi Info 7, with the level of significance set at 5%. Following threshold standards according to ANAES, the mean triglyceride level was significantly higher in type 2 diabetics (212.65±49.34 mg/dL) compared to type 1 diabetics (101.60±52.64 mg/dL) and controls (152.24±57.91 mg/dL) (p<0.0014). The mean low density lipoprotein (LDLc) was observed to be significantly higher in type 1 (136.78± 33.88 mg/dL) compared to type 2 (113.29 ± 38.00 mg/dL) diabetics and controls (94.62 ± 51.31 mg/dL) (P = 0.017), and likewise the median high density lipoprotein (HDLc) of type I, type II, and non-diabetics corresponding to 11.5, 47 and 56 mg/dl respectively were significantly different (p<0.0001). Furthermore, mixed hyperlipidemia was absent among the type 1 diabetics but more prevalent in type 2 diabetics (37.1 %) compared to controls (6.7%). According to the D’Agostino (Framingham) model, 37.1% of type II diabetics and 6.8 % of non-diabetics had a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease in 10 years, and the difference here was statistically significant (p=0.001). Both type 1 and type 2 diabetics originating from northern Cameroon are very prone to dyslipidemias and thus highly predisposed to cardiovascular diseases.

Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2015) 4(3), 18-24

Keywords: Diabetes, Lipid Profile, Cardiovascular disease risk, Northern Cameroon


Keywords


Diabetes, Lipid Profile, Cardiovascular disease risk, Northern Cameroon

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