Incidence of Traumatic Brain Injury in a Ghanaian Tertiary Hospital

A. Adam, A. Alhassan, I. Yabasin

Abstract


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered as one of the most silent epidemics and its incidence is rising worldwide due to injuries associated with the increased use of motor vehicles and bad road network, particularly in middle-income and low-income countries including Ghana. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of TBI, cause of injury as well as outcomes of patient’s care in the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Ghana. This retrospective study was carried out at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, the only Tertiary referral hospital in the whole of the savanna ecological zone of Ghana over 43 months from January 2009 to July 2012. All patients admitted into the hospital and diagnosed as having TBI were included in the study. The medical records of a total of 671 patients who were diagnosed with TBI were reviewed. Information regarding the age, sex, occupation and
initial external cause of injury was retrieved. Data regarding length of hospital stay and treatment outcome were also retrieved. External cause of injury was classified according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD) guidelines as Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) (irrespective of type), fall from height, assault, gunshot, game or sport related accident and other causes. Road traffic accident accounts for relatively high incidence of hospitalized TBI. Majority of the patients were male within the 21-30 year age group. The high number of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) fatalities may indicate that more resources and facilities (intensive care nurses and equipment to monitor intracranial pressure) are needed to help in the management of cases particularly head injuries.

Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2016) 5(2), 5-12


Keywords


Head Injury; Trauma; Road Traffic Accident; Northern zone; Ghana

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